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COMMON NEUROLOGICAL SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

There are many neurological signs and symptoms, which warrant neurological evaluation.Some of the more common neurological signs and symptoms are listed below. 

Aphasia
Inability to verbally express oneself either because of inability to coordinate speech or to select proper words. This may occur secondary to injury to select regions of the speech and auditory processing centers within the cerebral cortex of the brain. 

Apraxia
Disorders of voluntary movement, consisting of partial or complete incapacity to execute purposeful movement notwithstanding the preservation of muscle power, sensation and coordination. 

Atony
A lack of muscle tone.

Atrophy
Shrinkage or wasting away of an organ or tissue because of a reduction in the size or number of its cells. Tissue atrophy may occur secondary to death or resorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, pressure, ischemia,malnutrition, decreased activity or hormonal changes.  The most common plication of the term is muscle atrophy which may occur secondary to denervation, disuse or muscel disease. 

Aura
Symptoms which occur prior to a particular neurological event such as a seizure or migraine that serves as a warning that additional signs or symptoms
will follow. 

Bradykinesia
The slowing of motor movements due to dysfunction of a specialized group of cells in the brain called the basal ganglia. 

Cramping
A painful muscle spasm, which may involve one or more muscles.

Dementia
An acquired loss of cognitive function that may affect language, attention, memory, personality and abstract reasoning. 

Diploplia
Double vision. 

Imbalance
Lack of equality between muscle forces leading to difficulty performing a task such as walking.

Incoordination (ataxia)
Inability to efficiently contract muscles in a smooth firing pattern during the execution of a movement.
Muscle Fasiculations: Visible or palpable twitching of muscle fibers. This can occur with diseases involving the spinal cord, nerve root, peripheral nervous system and with muscle disease.  

Muscle Fatigue
A progressive loss of muscle performance associated with physical exertion. This may occur secondary to a loss of nerve supply to the muscle or with deconditioning of the  muscle due to disease.

Pain
An unpleasant sensation associated with actual or potential tissue damage, mediated by specific nerve fibers to the brain where its conscious appreciation may be modified by various factors.

Paresthesia:
Unusual sensory symptoms consisting of one or more of the following: tingling, numbness or other feelings or abnormal senosry experiences. 

Ptosis
Drooping of the eyelids due to weakness of the muscles responsible for keeping the eyelids open. 

Numbness
Diminished sensation with a feeling of dullness. 

Sleep Apnea
A disorder that results in apnea (cessation of breathing) during Sleep often secondary to obstruction of the airway.

Spasticity
stiffness or rigidity of muscles involving the limbs, which results from dysfunction or compromise of the corticospinal tracts (motor pathways). 

Tingling
A peculiar pricking thrill, caused by cold, by an emotional shock or nerve compromise.

Tinnitus
Subjective ringing or noise in the ears. 

Tremor
An involuntary trembling movement.

Vertigo
Dizziness or imbalance that is often associated with a spinning or rotational component. 

Weakness
A loss or reduction of physical strength









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